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White Papers & Technical Presentations

The Synthetic Turf Council actively collects white papers and other technical presentations on a variety of topics within the industry. If you are working on a project, or have something that you wish to share, we encourage you to submit your final document(s) on one or more of the following subjects:


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Industrial adhesives, products not found in home supply stores, are used to bond synthetic turf seams and inserts, and, in some applications, a total glue down of the synthetic turf to the base. Synthetic turf adhesives should be applied by experienced, professional installers. The adhesives should provide a strong, hazard-free, and durable bond between adjacent turf panels or sections and to be usable for installation under variable weather conditions. The adhesive should also be resistant to water, fungus, and mildew. Synthetic turf adhesives include: one-part adhesives (urethane), two-part (epoxy or urethane), hot melt, and water-based (latex) and one-part, solvent/isocyanate free adhesive (SMP).
Item Name Posted By Date Posted
More Outdoor Synthetic Turf Adhesive Information Link  more ] Administration 7/30/2014
Adhesives for Synthetic Turf and Rec. Surfaces Link  more ] Administration 7/30/2014

Base Construction

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The aggregate base on which the synthetic turf is installed provides a structurally sound foundation for field construction, and a media for drainage of the field. The base is designed to ensure that once the field is in place, it never moves. A good geotechnical report will provide essential information for a firm and stable base for the synthetic turf.
Item Name Posted By Date Posted
Specifying/Constructing Stable and Lasting Bases PDF (5.55 MB)  more ] Administration 7/30/2014
Sports Field Base Construction, Drainage PDF (6.68 MB)  more ] Administration 7/30/2014
Building Good Drainage for Synthetic Turf Fields Link  more ] Administration 7/30/2014
Synthetic field bases 101 Link  more ] Administration 7/9/2019
Synthetic turf field bases are important Link  more ] Administration 7/30/2014

Design & Specification

Item Name Posted By Date Posted
Things to Consider When Specifying Synthetic Turf PDF (2.69 MB)  more ] Administration 7/30/2014


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An efficient and effective underground drainage system is an integral component of a synthetic turf system, and is designed to carry away the water that percolates through the turf. The system chosen will depend on the use of the field, climate, amount of rainfall and other factors.
Item Name Posted By Date Posted
Basic Drainage Principles Applied to Sports Fields Link  more ] Administration 7/30/2014


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Typically, the fiber used in synthetic turf is textured and/or non-textured polypropylene, polyethylene, nylon, or other suitable performing hybrid or copolymer in tape form or mono-filament. Minimum fiber sizes are 50 microns for polypropylene or polyester, 100 microns for tape form (slit film) polyethylene, 140-300 form mono-filament polyethylene (shape dependent), and 500 denier for nylon. Fibers should be compliant with ASTM guideline for total lead content.
Item Name Posted By Date Posted
Fields Benefitting from Latest Fiber Technology Link  more ] Administration 7/30/2014

Field Coverings

Item Name Posted By Date Posted
New Developments in Field Covering Systems PDF (1.64 MB)  more ] Administration 7/30/2014


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Synthetic turf is growing in popularity as a sports field, landscape, and recreation alternative to natural grass because it allows for virtually unlimited hours of safe practice and play time; remains resilient, well-draining, and grass-like even in adverse climactic conditions; significantly reduces cost of regular maintenance; and eliminates need for pesticides and fertilizers. However, in direct sunlight during the hottest part of the day in the summer months, the upper layer of the synthetic turf that is exposed to the sun’s rays will get significantly hotter than grass. So on a hot, sunny day, in addition to taking proper precautions to minimize their risk of heat exhaustion, heat stroke or other heat-related health complications regardless of the playing surface, those who play on synthetic turf should consider the practical risk avoidance strategies recommended in this STC guidance document, "Guidelines for Maintenance of Infilled Synthetic Turf Sports Fields".
Item Name Posted By Date Posted
Measuring Heat of Synthetic Turf PDF (896.69 KB)  more ] Administration 7/30/2014
Synthetic Playing Surfaces Hot, But Safe PDF (78.98 KB)  more ] Administration 7/30/2014
Guidelines for Minimizing the Risk of Heat-Related Link  more ] Administration 7/30/2014


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The most recent generation of synthetic turf systems utilizes a long pile height and needs to be supported with infill materials for directional stability and structural integrity, as well as resiliency. The infill materials commonly used are sand, rubber, other suitable materials, or combinations thereof.
Item Name Posted By Date Posted
Infill & Pad Presentation Spring 2016 mtg Link Administration 4/26/2016
Synthetic Turf Infill and Pad Options PDF (1.49 MB)  more ] Administration 7/30/2014
Not All Synthetic Infill Material Is the Same Link  more ] Administration 4/19/2016


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Sprinklers and irrigation systems are used for cooling and control of static electricity and dust in synthetic turf systems.
Item Name Posted By Date Posted
Benefits of Irrigation for Synthetic Turf PDF (1.47 MB)  more ] Administration 7/30/2014
Update on Irrigating Synthetic Turf Link  more ] Administration 7/30/2014
Technical Issues – Sports field irrigation PDF (2.55 MB)  more ] Administration 7/30/2014
Watering artificial turf: the state of the art Link  more ] Administration 7/30/2014

Landscape & Recreation

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As the fastest growing segment of the market, today’s landscape synthetic grass options include numerous innovations formulated specifically for use with lawns, areas where children and pets play, public spaces and much more.
Item Name Posted By Date Posted
The Sustainable Playground Surface PDF (5.54 MB)  more ] Administration 7/30/2014
Synthetic Turf for Landscape PDF (12.81 MB)  more ] Administration 7/30/2014

LEED Points

Item Name Posted By Date Posted
LEED Points – How to Earn Them, and What They Mean PDF (643.25 KB)  more ] Administration 7/30/2014


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Maintaining a synthetic turf field is essential for optimum appearance, safety, playing performance, and field longevity. A regular schedule of maintenance should include surface cleaning, debris removal, grooming, and infill redistribution and de-compaction. The maintenance procedures and equipment, as specified by the synthetic turf systems builder and required for the system, should be evaluated during the selection process so that the appropriate budget resources for manpower and equipment may be allocated. Note: Refer to the Synthetic Turf Council’s Suggested Guidelines for the Maintenance of Infilled Synthetic Turf Surfaces, April 2007, for additional information.
Item Name Posted By Date Posted
FIFA Research Findings 2013 PDF (3.06 MB)  more ] Administration 7/31/2014
Tips on Maintaining Infill Synthetic Turf Link  more ] Administration 7/30/2014
Coping with snow and ice on synthetic surfaces Link  more ] Administration 7/30/2014
How to Maintain Football Turf PDF (1.52 MB)  more ] Administration 7/30/2014
Synthetic Solutions: Turf maintenance and repair Link  more ] Administration 7/30/2014
Synthetic Turf Maintenance and Repair Link  more ] Administration 7/30/2014


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Lines and markings, such as sport specific game lines, logos, and numbers, should be applied to the synthetic turf surface in one of three methods: with colored fiber that is either tufted or knitted into the synthetic turf panels during the manufacturing process, installed as inlays, or with temporary or permanent paint that is approved for use on synthetic turf surfaces. Painted lines and markings installed with either permanent or temporary paint require maintenance. Even permanently painted lines require additional paint on a periodic basis.
Item Name Posted By Date Posted
Make Your Mark Link  more ] Administration 7/30/2014
Infilled Synthetic Turf Paint PDF (2.65 MB)  more ] Administration 7/30/2014

Reclamation, Reuse & Recycling

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What happens with synthetic turf once it reaches the end of its useful life? What options are available to avoid the landfill? One of the challenges the synthetic turf industry is working on is determining how best to manage the removal and disposition of synthetic turf once it has reached the end of its useful life, or “End of Life” (EOL).
Item Name Posted By Date Posted
Overview of the STC’s New Environmental Initiative PDF (6.12 MB)  more ] Administration 7/30/2014

Research & Development

Item Name Posted By Date Posted
The Turf of Tomorrow PDF (382.37 KB)  more ] Administration 7/30/2014


Item Name Posted By Date Posted
Player Performance & Injury Studies PDF (7.93 MB)  more ] Administration 7/31/2014
Player Performance, Temperature Predication PDF (3.44 MB)  more ] Administration 7/30/2014
Optimizing Player Performance & Safety PDF (9.66 MB)  more ] Administration 7/30/2014
FIFA – An Update PDF (21.83 MB)  more ] Administration 7/30/2014

Selection & Installation

Item Name Posted By Date Posted
Artificial Turf Selection and Installation Link  more ] Administration 7/30/2014
Turf Installation Techniques PDF (6.14 MB)  more ] Administration 7/30/2014
Infilled Synthetic Turf Fields Link  more ] Administration 7/30/2014
Synthetic Turf Selection and Installation Link  more ] Administration 7/30/2014
Unnatural Selection PDF (451.72 KB)  more ] Administration 7/30/2014

Shock Pads & E-Layers

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Shock attenuation pads offer an added level of protection and consistent playability to the playing surface and are designed to contribute to a safe g-max level throughout a synthetic turf field’s life. Roll out or panel systems are relatively economical and offer ease of installation. Pads can be permeable or impermeable. Some can replace all or portions of the stone base and provide both shock attenuation and drainage, while others are used in combination with a traditional stone and drainage base. Pads can be placed directly over asphalt or cement stabilized surfaces. Provided care is taken in the turf install/removal process, some last more than one turf life cycle. Some pads are made from recycled materials, while others are made from virgin materials and may be recyclable. Elastic layers (E-layers) are poured in-place (in situ) pads and must be installed by specialty contractors. They are completely permeable and are typically comprised of rubber granulate and polyurethane binder
Item Name Posted By Date Posted
Performance Guide for Shockpads PDF (283.04 KB)  more ] Administration 7/30/2014


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3D Scanning and High Definition Surveying Link  more ] Administration 7/30/2014

Synthetic Turf Vs. Natural Grass

Item Name Posted By Date Posted
Overview of FIFA Research on 'Football Turf' PDF (8.14 MB)  more ] Administration 7/30/2014


Item Name Posted By Date Posted
Advances in Artificial Weathering, Durability PDF (1.68 MB)  more ] Administration 7/30/2014
Testing Synthetic Turf Surfaces PDF (4.93 MB)  more ] Administration 7/30/2014


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What Facility Managers Need to Know... Link  more ] Administration 7/30/2014
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